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School. Maybe your female ancestor taught at one. Maybe, even for a semester, they attended one. Don't forget about the importance of school records in your genealogy. Records for school come in all forms and can be found in various repositories, local and statewide as well as online. As with everything, start with FamilySearch and then try a state archive or library.
Here's some resources to check out involving schools.
Michigan One-Room Schoolhouse Association
Colorado State Archives - School Records
About.com - School and Alumni Records
GenealogyToday- School Records: Researching School Teachers, Part 2 - Record Types